时态语法总览&非谓语动词之用法

非谓语动词之用法

作主语

1.不定式作主语

To + v. … +v.
When (疑问副词) + to +v.+ … +v.
For sb. to +v.
e.g.
① To persevere means victory.
② When to start remains undecided.
③ For us to be red and expert is not only necessary but also possible.

形式主语It

1.It is + n. + to + v.
2.It takes sb. time to + v.
3.It is + adj. + for/of sb.+ to + v.
e.g.
① It is our duty to support their struggle for liberation.
② It only took us a year to finish the work.
③ It is hard for me to master English.

2.动名词作主语

Doing+…+v.
e.g.
① Reading is an art.
② Seeing is believing.

It’s no good …, no use …, useless… +doing
It’s a good pleasure… +doing
It’s a waste of time… +doing
e.g.
① It’s no use arguing about the point.
② It’s no good waiting here,let’s walk home.
③ It’s a waste of time arguing about it.

There is no + doing.
e.g.
① There is no telling what he is going to do.
② There is no knowing what may happen.

作表语

1.不定式作表语

① To +v. + is + to +v. (一是条件一是结果)
② pron/n. +is/seem+to+v.(包括不定式完成式或被动态)
③ What-clause +is +to+v.(表语说明主要内容)
e.g.
① To do two things at a time is to do neither.
② She seemed to have heard about it already.
③ What i would suggest is to start work at once.

2.动名词作表语

e.g. Our work is serving the people.

3.分词作表语

现在分词作表语。表主语的特征能引起别人的感性。
过去分词作表语。表主语受外界作用所处的状态。
e.g.
① The present situation is encouraging.
② We are all pleased.
③ She looked disappointed.

作定语

1.不定式作定语

①主 + 谓 + 宾 + to + v.(主被动)
②主 + 谓 + 宾 + to + v. + prep.
③There is /are + n. + to + v.
e.g.
① Do you have anything more to say?
② Have you anything to be taken to your mother?
③ She’s a lot of pens to write with.
④ There is no time to lose (to be lost).
⑤ These are some difficulties to overcome(to be overcome).

2.分词作定语

①分词+n.
②n.+分词
e.g.
① All moving bodies have energy.
② Electricity remains the widely used form of energy in industry.
③ Here is a letter announcing his arrival.
④ This is a book written by a peasant.
⑤ He is a man respected by all.
1.指过去发生的动作时,用过去分词作定语(被动关系)
The question discussed is of great importance.
2.指正在发生的动作时,用现在分词被动态作定语(被动)
The question being discussed is of great importance.
3.指将来发生的动作时,用不定式被动态作定语(被动)
The question to be discussed tomorrow is of great importance.

作宾语

1.不定式作宾语

主+谓+to+v.(要求不定式作宾语的V.有 agree ask choose decide demand expect hope learn manage prepare promise refuse want wish ,etc.)

主+谓+it+宾补+to+v.
e.g.
The workers think it necessary to increase product.

主 + 谓 + 疑问pron. / 疑问adv. + to + v.
e.g.
I dont know what to do/ where to go/whom to ask/when to sleep/how to get there/which one to buy/whether to laugh or cry.

Prep. but / except / besides + to v./ v.
e.g.
① He desired nothing but to succeed.
② He did nothing but cry.He couldn’t choose help but cry.
③ That afternoon I had nothing to do besides answer.

2. 动名词作宾语

① 主+谓+doing. 要求动名词作宾语的V.
② have difficulty / trouble/ fun/ a hard/good time (in) doing.
③ feel like +n./dong. 好像想要
e.g.
① It feels like rain.( It feels like raining(X))
② I dont feel like going to the movies.

作宾语补足语

1.不定式作宾补

V.+宾语+v.
要求不带to的动词作宾补的动司有
Have ,make ,let ,see ,hear ,feel ,notice ,observe ,watch ,listen to ,look at
e.g.
① Make foreign things serve China.
② Its quite amusing to look at other people play chess.
注:这种句子变成被动语态to需加上
They were made to work day and night.

2.分词作宾补

V.+宾语+分词
1.see, hear, feel, smell, watch, find, notice, observe, look at,
2.have, set, keep, get, catch, need, leave, send,致使
e.g.
① Can you smell anything burning?
② They find the lost child hiding in the cave.
③ I wont have you doing that.
④ With the words he set all of us laughing.
⑤ You wont watch me doing that again.
⑥ His remarks left me wondering about his real purpose.
⑦ We must get the machine going/repaired soon.
⑧ I found my hometown almost completely rebuilt.

作状语

1.不定式作状语

<1>目的状语
to+v.…,主+谓+…
主+谓+…,to+v.…(so as to ,in order to)
e.g.
① To get the best results,use clean water.
② He went home to see his mother.
③ I turned the radio down so as to no to disturb you.
④ We go to school in order to get knowledge.

<2>原因状语
be + adj. + to + v.
be + 过分 + to + v.
V. + to + v.
e.g.
① I m very glad to see you.
② I was surprised to see her there.
③ She wept to hear the news.

<3>结果状语
1.only to + v.
2.Adj./adv.+ enough + (for +o.) + to + v.
3.too + adj./adv. + to + v.
4.So + adj. + as + to + v.
e.g.
① He worked hard only to fail again.
② She is old enough to retire.
③ The room is large enough for us five to sleep in.
④ I m too tired to work any more.
⑤ Would you be so kind as to lend me your bicycle?

<4>反衬不定式作状语
主+be+adj.+to+v. 不定式主动态具有被动含义,不改动被动态。
e.g.
① The question is impossible to answer.
② English is difficult to learn.
③ The room is comfortable to live in.

2.分词作状语

分词短语,主+谓+…(时间,原因,让步,条件,伴随等)
e.g.
① Walking along the street yesterday,i met a friend of mine.
② Seen from space ,our earth looks like a blue blanket.
③ Not hearing from her parents,she is in low spirits.
④ Studying hard,you will pass the entrance exam.
⑤ Weighing three hundred pounds,the piano is not too heavy for me move.(让步)
⑥ The train starts at six,arriving at seven.
注:有时短语前可加连接词,如,after,when,while,
e.g.
① When used,energy is often changed from one into another.
② While working in the factory,we learned much from the workers.






只需一句话!轻松记住非谓语动词的所有用法

我们知道在英语中最核心的词是动词。英语中每一个句子都有一个动词,且只允许出现一个动词。如果再出现其他的动词形式,则需使用非谓语动词。只是非谓语动词的用法很多,很多学生不知从何下手记忆,下面我用一种方法教大家怎么记住。

什么是非谓语动词?

从字面上理解就是不能充当谓语的动词。其形式有to do(动词不定式)、doing(现在分词/动名词)、done(过去分词)。

非谓语动词与动词之间差异?

一、相同之处:两者都是动词,所以非谓语动词都具备有动词的功能,也就是说动词可以有主语、宾语、状语、宾补、表语,非谓语动词也同样可以连接这些成分。

二、不同之处:动词在句子中只能充当谓语,而非谓语动词在句子中唯一不能充当的就是谓语。换言之,只要记住非谓语动词不能充当的成分,剩下的成分它都能充当。动词构成的句型结构叫句子,非谓语动词构成的句型结构叫短语。短语唯一不能充当谓语。

动词构成句子

非谓语动词构成短语

doing在句子中充当成分

1、Swimming is his favourite sport.(Swimming充当主语)

2、He enjoys swimming. (Swimming充当宾语)

3、I found him swimming in the river. (短语Swimming in the river充当宾补)

4、His favourite sport is swimming.(Swimming充当表语)

5、He is the man swimming in the river just now. (短语Swimming in the river just now充当定语)

6、 Swimming in Summer ,we can get cool.(短语Swimming in Summer充当状语)

to do 在句子中充当成分

1、To see you is glad.(to see充当主语)

2、I want to see you.(短语to see you充当宾语)

3、.I want him to see you. (短语to see you充当宾补)

4、My hope is to see you.(短语to see you充当表语)

5、He is the man to see you.(短语to see you充当定语)

6、I’m glad to see you.(短语to see you充当状语)

done在句子中充当成分有:定语、状语和补语都是表达被动的意思

1、I heard the song sung in English .(短语sung in English充当宾补 )我听到这首歌被用英语唱。

2、Seen from the top of the tower, the factory looks beautiful.(短语Seen from the top of the tower充当状语)被从塔顶上看,这个工厂看起来漂亮。

3、This is the question discussed yesterday(短语discussed yesterday充当定语)这就是昨天被讨论的问题。


457 Views